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We get to know the characters through their surroundings, which point to their subjective worlds and emotional experiences; the object perceived becomes the subject, an operation that shatters the boundary between art and life. Her voice is hopeful, though not without disharmony, as it expresses much scepticism and suspicion.
Different generations of writers participated in the literary process simultaneously: some writers from the s, such as Khvoshchinskaia, were still writing, alongside young authors starting their careers in the s. There are several reasons for the increased number of women writers.
Above all, this affected the landed gentry, whose unmarried daughters were obliged to work to support themselves. By the turn of the century the majority of women writers came from urban families or humble backgrounds, as had Valentina Dmitrieva and Elizaveta Militsyna — Apart from various areas of society still closed to women, art, literature and journalism offered educated women professional opportunities.
Conflicts that the new woman experienced, and which she narrated in literature, were related to her devotion to a socio-political cause and to the struggle with emotional insecurities linked with taboo female sexuality. Women were also conscious of a number of contemporary female media professionals, editors, journalists and publishers, offering their support.
Female writing was legitimized by a gender culture which preferred individualism and difference; women used the crisis discourse implicit in new theoretical, aesthetic and socio-political concepts to depict the new world and the new woman from a female perspective, analogous to that of their Western-European female colleagues, by the turn of the century.
Then, too, Russian women entered the literary arena, as writers and readers, by contributing to the differentiation of cultural and literary blocs — during the transformation of classicism into sentimental and, later, romantic paradigms. At both points we see the disintegration of old, social and symbolic agreements and of former canons. The analogy motivates us to ask whether it is this crisis discourse, the shift towards to the anti-rational, which reveals the disintegration of old, social and symbolic agreements of former canons, and whether it was this collapse which helped women to take part in the historical drama for the move on to the literary stage.
The backbone of the Realist tradition was still the escape plot. It was the new prose fiction of various women authors which appealed to the new readers. Her work belongs to the transformation period; she wrote, on the one hand, in the tradition of nineteenth-century Realism, putting art to the service of the people, but on the other hand, took up all the major questions of the time: concerns of town and country, the peasant question, the social circumstances of urban workers and the intelligentsia.
Dmitrieva should be revalued for her large body of work, her thorough knowledge of, and intensive focus on, rural and urban working life, as an author whose Realist inspiration reached far into the Soviet period and not least for her anti-sentimental narrative view of peasant life, which should be noted when we rewrite the traditions of village prose. Of special interest are the detailed images of peasant life that the author knew through working as a teacher, village doctor and radical activist in rural villages.
Her novellas and stories, like Clouds Tuchki, , Heave-ho! Maina-vira, and The Bees are Buzzing Pchely zhuzhzhat , , deal with peasant life with deep understanding and empathy for the heavy burden of men, women and children, like the ten-year-old peasant boy Dimka slaving in the glass factory Dimka , The great theme, in very different stories of the turn of the century, is that of happiness as imagined by the new woman.
Female happiness is the particular topic explored by Lidiia Ivanovna Veselitskaia V.
A History of Central European Women's Writing
Mikulich, — Why is Mimi not happy? She could dance, draw and play the piano quite well, but her soul was not ready for life. The author points out critically that the woman question is not only an economic, but also a moral question, in the sense that women should learn to take care of themselves and dare to make their own decisions. Marriage is not the only option any more, as the contemporary woman critic, E. In her first period —87 , she explores female slavery in the novel, A High Price to Pay: A Family Story Dorogoi tsenoi: iz semeinoi prozy , , in which a heroine gives herself up totally to the needs of others, rejecting her own career and professional ambitions.
An exemplary novel of female slavery is Funeral Feast Pominki , , which shows what remains after such a self-abnegating life: after her death, the life of Aunt Katia is barely recalled and her devotion to others is not appreciated by her descendants, indeed quite the opposite. The depiction of female self-abnegation reveals Shapir as a radical cultural critic: she rejects the sacred significance of female selfabnegation asserted by religious ideology.
In the period —, Shapir accomplishes a gendered inversion whereby, like other contemporary women writers, she replaces male characters with women whose desires and deeds now organize the plot. It is the working-class woman whose life and setting the author vividly depicts in detail, and who, the author believes, is ready to take up the challenges of the modern world. Shapir broadens the woman question, not only emphasizing work, but also the aim for equality in difference; the new woman strives for independence in life and love. Shapir shows the difficult psychological obstacles that the new woman has to overcome.
The author encourages the heroines to make their own decisions, however painful.
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The heroines are fatherless and mothers play an important role, not so much as educators, but rather as allies. Shapir recalls the literary tradition of her female predecessors, while simultaneously adopting the new possibilities given to women writers within the expanded ideological differentiation of Realism and within the feminist movement. The definition of the genre used by scholars identifies its earlier Western European model and emphasizes its popularity, the material success of its authors, its woman-centred topics and characters and the female readers and writers.
It was a product of new aesthetic preferences, new kinds of fantasies and new forms of distribution by literary and commercial institutions. With numerous editions of her works, Verbitskaia achieved a commercial success unparalleled in her time; this was later on achieved for other women too, as their publisher presented motifs and relationships that were repeated and varied by women prose-writers over the next three decades.
All her novels cross boundaries of gender and class. Without doubt the appearance of women writers in the field of mass literature and their popularity among the readers can be seen as an innovative break. On the other hand, however, while women did write bestsellers, they wrote popular literature, which was not highly appreciated by the old elite.
Women still wrote at the margins, i. From the point of view of the critics they still remained second-rank writers: here we also recognize the double standard which would take place in Russian Modernism and Symbolism as well: on the one hand, women authors enjoyed success among the readers and actively took part in the literary process, on the other hand, their literary work was not valued by established critical opinion.
Especially for the Russian Symbolists, the feminine was essential to the aesthetic concept based on the utopian unity of dual forces beyond the real and the ideal realms.
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In Symbolist aesthetics the feminine was the material of art. Women writers, not accepted as purveyors of signs, functioned as signs for the male creator in need of a Muse and this became the main function for women in the social and the aesthetic world divided by gender roles and dominated by Symbolist men. They expressed discomfort with the stereotype of reduction to a sign for the male interpreter and the function granted to women by Symbolist theory. They tested and varied representations of the Eternal Feminine and developed strategies of inversion accomplished by mimicry and deconstruction of dual gender hierarchies.
Women writers reacted differently to expectations of them as women and poets. Their poetic and cultural strategies often remained ambiguous, like the practices of mimicry and subversion, which approached each other when women played out the function of the mystical Muse or the femme fatale. In her sonnet collection, My Garden Moi sad , , her aim is to identify feminine creative subjectivity.
As Kirsti Ekonen has argued, she does this in ways similar to those identified decades later by Western feminist theoreticians such as Luce Irigaray, by aspiring to language which is woman-centred, even within a male-centred world.
A history of Russian women's writing, - Catriona Kelly - Google книги
Her voice was, however, original and innovative, premature in its form. Its specific character was in relation to what was allowed to male writers, either as an overvaluation of, or as a rejection of, the male canon. Crisis discourse, which sought to replace the exhausted canons, emphasizing difference, was the space which women adopted to their advantage for their aim at self-assertion by aesthetic performance.
Esteemed forms of aesthetic activity were replaced by re-valued forms of creative communication, such as the salons which re-emerged as the space for women to combine public and private, pre-aesthetic and the high poetic of Symbolic aesthetics. She was a brilliant and innovative poet, a prose-writer, a productive critic and one of the few women canonized by high literature.
Gippius is exemplary in showing us that whatever aesthetic strategy and ideological position women writers of the Modernist period took up, they were forced to deal with femininity. Her biography has two versions: the first shows her as part of the life-creation zhiznetvorchestvo practicing within high Symbolist circles along with her famous husband and the leading ideologist, Viacheslav Ivanov , where she is the embodiment of the Symbolist image of woman as the ideal Muse and passive object of worship; the second version shows her finding her own independent voice while writing herself out of Symbolist aesthetics.
The story, which is based on the diary of the female narrator, tells the love story of two women actresses. The setting is the apartment of one of the women, and they never leave it, except at the end; in the catastrophic culmination, Vera sacrifices her love and the narrator to pose in front of thirty-three painters, who produce thirty-three abominations, but cannot reproduce the original. Vera commits suicide and the female narrator becomes a mistress of one of the male painters.
The story is, obviously, metaliterary, taking place in the world of art and dealing with central categories of Symbolist aesthetics, such as mirrors and masks; it uses mimicry as the main strategy, in order to subvert the object of its parody, Symbolist aesthetics. Amongst them were such innovative authors as Sofiia Iakovlevna Parnok — , Adelaida Kazimirovna Gertsyk — and Elizaveta Iurievna Kuzmina-Karavaeva — , as well as the already well-known and great creators of Russian poetry, Marina Tsvetaeva and Anna Akhmatova.
In literature-centred Russian culture, literature was always endowed with special ideological obligations that were, as a consequence of the high status of literature, submitted to rigorous control. Nevertheless, as we hope to have shown, women of the nineteenth century did not only accept the challenge and learn to answer the male questions, but they learned to formulate their own questions and topics.
They broke out of the silence, adopted various genres, topics and narrative strategies. They learned to communicate while writing and they created a tradition, which was not — or to a very small extent — noticed by contemporary male critics. Gheith Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , p. Gheith Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , pp.
History of Women's Writing in Russia
Cross and G. Smith Nottingham: Astra, , pp. Clyman and Diana Greene, pp. Thesen und Momentaufnahmen aus der Geschichte russischer Dichterinnen , ed. Band 16 , pp. Douglas Clayton Columbus, Ohio: Slavica, , pp. Key to her work was the reinterpretation of myth. Another path was to agree to be not a poet but a poetess.
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Fainshtein Wilhelmshorst: F. Aronson and S. Reiser, Literaturnye kruzhki i salony Leningrad: Priboi, ; V. Vatsuro, Iz istorii literaturnogo byta pushkinskoi pory Moscow: Kniga, ; Literaturnye salony i kruzhki, pervaia polovina XIX veka , ed. Chernov Moscow: MGU, , p. Istoriia literatury. Kino Moscow: Nauka, , p. Later, after , her poetic fame faded and the new generation of critics Chernyshevskii and Dobroliubov wrote of her scornfully. Rostopchina wrote long poems, verse drama, stories and novels, but her most popular works in the view both of contemporaries and later readers were her lyrics.
On Rostopchina see, for example, M.
https://corbevenlandbook.ml However, the poem displays the very type of woman author as Rostopchina, who is explicitly addressed in former poems. This tradition of contrasting and opposing Pavlova and Rastopchina continued also later. See, for example, V. The Feminine and the Masculine London: Macmillan, , pp. Elena A. Berkovskii, Romantizm v Germanii Leningrad: Khudozhestvennaia literatura, Rostopchina, Talisman. Izbrannaia lirika.